填空题(2024年清华大学

设 A 是一个三阶方阵,其元素为 1,2,…,9,且满足每行元素从左到右递增,每列元素从上到下递增,则满足条件的 A 有______个.

答案解析

421只能填在最左上角,9 只能填在最右下角,考虑中间格的填数x:x比它左上三个数大,因此 x≥4;而比右下三个数小,因此 x≤6.(1)若x=4,则x 左上三个数只能是 1,2,3,此时 2,3 有两种填法,剩余 5,6,7,8有6种填法,共 12 种填法.(2)若x=6,则同理有12种填法.(3...

查看完整答案

讨论

方程(x5-5x+k)=0有______个实根.

令S=m²n/(2m(n2m+m2n)),则[100S]=________.

令S=(lnx)5/x²dx,则[S]=______.

令A,B,C,D,E,F是三阶实方阵,且=.已知A=,B=且C=A+B-I,则[|detF|]=______.

已知圆锥面x²+y²=z²/3,记沿该圆锥面从P(-√3,3,6)到Q(√3,0,3)的曲线长度的最小值为I,则[10I]=________.

对于一个实数x,令{x}=x-[x]. 记S=min⁡({x/8},{x/4}) dx,则[S]=______.

A polynomial P with integer coefficients is square-free if it is not expressible in the form P=Q² R, where Q and R are polynomials with integer coefficients and Q is not constant. For a positive integer n, let Pn be the set of polynomials of the form1+a1 x+a2 x²+⋯+an xnwith a1,a2,⋯,an∈{0,1}. Prove that there exists an integer N so that, for all integers n>N, more than 99% of the polynomials in Pn are square-free.【译】我们称整系数多项式P是无平方因子的,如果其不能表示为P=Q² R的形式,这里Q,R为整系数多项式且Q不为常数.对于正整数n,记Pn为如下 形式的多项式组成的集合:1+a1 x+a2 x²+⋯+an xn这里a1,a2,⋯,an∈{0,1}.证明:存在整数N,使得对任意的整数n≥N,Pn中超过99%的多项式都是无平方因子的.

Let BC be a fixed segment in the plane, and let A be a variable point in the plane not on the line BC. Distinct points X and Y are chosen on the rays (CA) ⃗ and (BA) ⃗, respectively, such that ∠CBX=∠YCB=∠BAC.Assume that the tangents to the circumcircle of ABC at B and C meet line XY at P and Q, respectively, such that the points X,P,Y, and Q are pairwise distinct and lie on the same side of BC. Let Ω1 be the circle through X and Y centred on BC. Similarly let Ω2 be the circle through Y and Q centred on BC. Prove that Ω1 and Ω2 intersect at two fixed points as A varies.【译】在同一平面内,BC为给定线段,动点A不在直线BC上. X和Y分别为射线(CA) ⃗,射线(BA) ⃗上不重合的两点,满足∠CBX=∠YCB=∠BAC.若三角形ABC外接圆在点B和C处的切线分别交直线XY于点P和点Q,点X,P,Y,Q不重合,且位于直线BC同侧.圆Ω1经过点X,P且圆心在BC上.类地,圆Ω2经过点Y,Q且圆心在BC上.证明:当点A运动时,圆Ω1和圆Ω2始终交于两定点.

Fix integers a and b greater than 1. For any positive integer n, let rn be the (non-negative) remainder that bn leaves upon division by an. Assume there exists a positive integer N such that rn<2n/n for all integers n≥N.Prove that a divides b.给定大于1的整数a和b.对任意的正整数n,记rn为bn除以an的非负余数.若存在正整数N,使得对任意的n≥N,都有rn<2n/n.证明:a整除b.

Given a positive integer n, a set S is n-admissible if①each element of S is an unordered triple of integers in {1,2,⋯,n},②|S|=n-2,and③for each 1≤k≤n-2 and each choice of k distinct A1,A2,⋯,Ak∈S,|A1∪A2∪⋯∪Ak |≥k+2Is it true that, for all n>3 and for each n-admissible set S, there exist pairwise distinct points P1,P2,⋯,Pn in the plane such that the angles of the triangle Pi Pj Pk are all less than 61° for any triple {i,j,k} in S?【译】给定正整数n,称集合S是n-可行,如果其满足以下条件:①S的每个元素都是{1,2,⋯,n}的三元子集;②|S|=n-2;③对任意的1≤k≤n-2和任意k个互不相同的A1,A2,⋯,Ak∈S,都有|A1∪A2∪⋯∪Ak |≥k+2判断以下命题是否为真:对所有n>3和所有的n-可行集合S,在平面内总存在n个互不相同的点P1,P2,⋯,Pn,使得对集合S中任意元素{i,j,k},三角形Pi Pj Pk的每个内角都小于61°.

现有11位同学报名博物馆的志愿讲解活动,活动从上午9点开始到下午5点结束,每小时安排一场公益小讲堂,每场需要1位同学为参观的游客提供讲解服务.为避免同学们劳累,馆方在排班时不会让同一人连续讲解2场,并且第一场与最后一场需要两位不同的同学负责.则馆方共有________种排班方式.

Let n be a positive integer. Initially, a bishop is placed in each square of the top row of a 2n×2n chessboard; those bishops are numbered from 1 to 2n ,from left to right. A jump is a simultaneous move made by all bishops such that the following conditions are satisfied:each bishop moves diagonally, in a straight line, some number of squares, andat the end of the jump, the bishops all stand in different squares of the same row.Find the total number of permutations σ of the numbers 1,2,⋯,2n with the following property: There exists a sequence of jumps such that all bishops end up on the bottom row arranged in the order σ(1),σ(2),⋯,σ(2n ), from left to right.【译】设n是正整数.最开始在一个2n×2n的方格棋盘上的第一行的每个小方格内均放置一枚“象”,这些“象”从左到右依次编号:1,2,⋯,2n.定义一次“跳跃”操作为同时移动所有的“象”并满足如下条件:每一枚“象”可沿对角线方向移动任意方格;在这次“跳跃”操作结束时,所有的“象”恰在同一行的不同方格.求满足下列条件的数1,2,⋯,2n的排列σ的总个数:存在一系列的“跳跃”操作,使得结束时所有的“象”都在棋盘的最后一行,并且从左到右编号依次为:σ(1),σ(2),⋯,σ(2n ).

两只松鼠B和J为过冬收集了2021枚核桃. J将核桃依次编号为1到2021,并在它们最喜欢的树周围挖了一圈共2021个小坑.第二天早上, J发现B已经在每个小坑里放入了一枚核桃,但并未注意编号.不开心的J决定用2021次操作来改变这些核桃的位置.在第k次操作中把与第k号核桃相邻的两枚核桃交换位置.证明:存在某个λ,使得在第k次操作中, J交换了两枚编号为a和b的核桃,且a<k<b.

The Bank of Oslo issues two types of coin:aluminium(denoted A) and bronze(denoted B). Marianne has n aluminium coins and n bronze coins, arranged in a row in some arbitrary initial order.A chain is any subsequence of consecutive coins of the same type.Given a fixed positive integer k<2n, Marianne repeatedly performs the following operation:she identifies the longest chain containing the kth coin from the left and moves all coins in that chain to the left end of the row.For example, if n = 4 and k=4 the process starting from the ordering AABBBABA would beAABBBABA→BBBAAABA→AAABBBBA→BBBBAAAA.Find all pairs (n, k) with 1 ≤ k ≤2n such that for every initial ordering at some moment during the process,the leftmost n coins will all be of the same type. 译文:奥斯陆银行发行了两种货币:铝币(记为A)和铜币(记为B).玛丽安有n枚铝币和n枚铜币,以任意初始方式排成一排。定义一条链为任意由相同类型货币构成的连续子列。给定正整数k<2n,玛丽安重复地进行如下操作:她找出包含(从左到右)第k枚硬币的最长链,然后把该链中所有货币移到序列最左端。例如,n=4,k=4时,对于初始序列 AABBBABA,过程如下:AABBBABA→BBBAAABA→AAABBBBA→BBBBAAAA.求所有满足1≤k≤2n的数组(n,k),使得对任意初始序列,都可以在有限次操作内使左端为n枚相同的货币。

如图,一个地区分为5个行政区域,现给地图着色,要求相邻区域不得使用同一颜色,现有4种颜色可供选择,则不同的着色方法共有______种(以数字作答).

从数字1,2,3,4,5可重复地选出4个,能排列成多少个大于4000的奇数【 】

快递员收到 3 个同城快递任务,取送地点各不相同,取送件可穿插进行,不同的取送方式有【 】种。

有四个箱子,每个箱子装有3个红球利2个蓝球,且这20个球都是不同的。从这4个盒子中选出10个球,要求每个盒子至少选择一个红球和一个蓝球,则选择的方法共有多少种?

有 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 八个数字,可组成小于 10000 之数字有几?

在 A , B , C , D 四位候选人中:1.如果选举正、副班长各一人,共有几种选法?写出所有可能的选举结果.2.如果选举班委三人,共有几种选法?写出所有可能的选举结果.