填空题(2024年清华大学

已知圆锥面x²+y²=z²/3,记沿该圆锥面从P(-√3,3,6)到Q(√3,0,3)的曲线长度的最小值为I,则[10I]=________.

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讨论

对于一个实数x,令{x}=x-[x]. 记S=min⁡({x/8},{x/4}) dx,则[S]=______.

A polynomial P with integer coefficients is square-free if it is not expressible in the form P=Q² R, where Q and R are polynomials with integer coefficients and Q is not constant. For a positive integer n, let Pn be the set of polynomials of the form1+a1 x+a2 x²+⋯+an xnwith a1,a2,⋯,an∈{0,1}. Prove that there exists an integer N so that, for all integers n>N, more than 99% of the polynomials in Pn are square-free.【译】我们称整系数多项式P是无平方因子的,如果其不能表示为P=Q² R的形式,这里Q,R为整系数多项式且Q不为常数.对于正整数n,记Pn为如下 形式的多项式组成的集合:1+a1 x+a2 x²+⋯+an xn这里a1,a2,⋯,an∈{0,1}.证明:存在整数N,使得对任意的整数n≥N,Pn中超过99%的多项式都是无平方因子的.

Let BC be a fixed segment in the plane, and let A be a variable point in the plane not on the line BC. Distinct points X and Y are chosen on the rays (CA) ⃗ and (BA) ⃗, respectively, such that ∠CBX=∠YCB=∠BAC.Assume that the tangents to the circumcircle of ABC at B and C meet line XY at P and Q, respectively, such that the points X,P,Y, and Q are pairwise distinct and lie on the same side of BC. Let Ω1 be the circle through X and Y centred on BC. Similarly let Ω2 be the circle through Y and Q centred on BC. Prove that Ω1 and Ω2 intersect at two fixed points as A varies.【译】在同一平面内,BC为给定线段,动点A不在直线BC上. X和Y分别为射线(CA) ⃗,射线(BA) ⃗上不重合的两点,满足∠CBX=∠YCB=∠BAC.若三角形ABC外接圆在点B和C处的切线分别交直线XY于点P和点Q,点X,P,Y,Q不重合,且位于直线BC同侧.圆Ω1经过点X,P且圆心在BC上.类地,圆Ω2经过点Y,Q且圆心在BC上.证明:当点A运动时,圆Ω1和圆Ω2始终交于两定点.

Fix integers a and b greater than 1. For any positive integer n, let rn be the (non-negative) remainder that bn leaves upon division by an. Assume there exists a positive integer N such that rn<2n/n for all integers n≥N.Prove that a divides b.给定大于1的整数a和b.对任意的正整数n,记rn为bn除以an的非负余数.若存在正整数N,使得对任意的n≥N,都有rn<2n/n.证明:a整除b.

Given a positive integer n, a set S is n-admissible if①each element of S is an unordered triple of integers in {1,2,⋯,n},②|S|=n-2,and③for each 1≤k≤n-2 and each choice of k distinct A1,A2,⋯,Ak∈S,|A1∪A2∪⋯∪Ak |≥k+2Is it true that, for all n>3 and for each n-admissible set S, there exist pairwise distinct points P1,P2,⋯,Pn in the plane such that the angles of the triangle Pi Pj Pk are all less than 61° for any triple {i,j,k} in S?【译】给定正整数n,称集合S是n-可行,如果其满足以下条件:①S的每个元素都是{1,2,⋯,n}的三元子集;②|S|=n-2;③对任意的1≤k≤n-2和任意k个互不相同的A1,A2,⋯,Ak∈S,都有|A1∪A2∪⋯∪Ak |≥k+2判断以下命题是否为真:对所有n>3和所有的n-可行集合S,在平面内总存在n个互不相同的点P1,P2,⋯,Pn,使得对集合S中任意元素{i,j,k},三角形Pi Pj Pk的每个内角都小于61°.

Consider an odd prime p and a positive integer N<50p. Let a1,a2,⋯,aN be a list of positive integers less than p such that any specific value occurs at most 51/100 N times and a1,a2,⋯,aN is not divisible by p. Prove that there exists a permutation b1,b2,⋯,bN of the a_i such that, for all k=1,2,⋯,N, the sum b1+b2+⋯+bk is not divisible by p.【译】已知奇素数p和正整数N<50p.设a1,a2,⋯,aN是一些小于p的正整数,同一数值至多出现51/100 N次,且a1+a2+⋯+aN不能被p整除.证明:存在a_i的一个排列:b1,b2,⋯,bN,使得对任意的k=1,2,⋯,N,都有b1+b2+⋯+bk不能被p整除.

Let n be a positive integer. Initially, a bishop is placed in each square of the top row of a 2n×2n chessboard; those bishops are numbered from 1 to 2n ,from left to right. A jump is a simultaneous move made by all bishops such that the following conditions are satisfied:each bishop moves diagonally, in a straight line, some number of squares, andat the end of the jump, the bishops all stand in different squares of the same row.Find the total number of permutations σ of the numbers 1,2,⋯,2n with the following property: There exists a sequence of jumps such that all bishops end up on the bottom row arranged in the order σ(1),σ(2),⋯,σ(2n ), from left to right.【译】设n是正整数.最开始在一个2n×2n的方格棋盘上的第一行的每个小方格内均放置一枚“象”,这些“象”从左到右依次编号:1,2,⋯,2n.定义一次“跳跃”操作为同时移动所有的“象”并满足如下条件:每一枚“象”可沿对角线方向移动任意方格;在这次“跳跃”操作结束时,所有的“象”恰在同一行的不同方格.求满足下列条件的数1,2,⋯,2n的排列σ的总个数:存在一系列的“跳跃”操作,使得结束时所有的“象”都在棋盘的最后一行,并且从左到右编号依次为:σ(1),σ(2),⋯,σ(2n ).

Let m<n be positive integers. Start with n piles, each of m objects. Repeatedly carry out the following operation: choose two piles and remove n objects in total from the two piles. For which (m ,n) is it possible to empty all the piles?【译】设正整数m<n.起初一共有n 堆石子,每堆有 m块石子. 重复执行以下操作: 选择两堆石子,从这两堆中移除共n 块石子.问:对于怎样的 (m , n),可以移除所有石子?

Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle with AB > AC. Let P be the intersection of the tangents to the circumcircle of ABC at B and C. The line through the midpoints of line segments PB and PC meets lines AB and AC at X and Y respectively.Prove that the quadrilateral AXPY is cyclic.【译】在锐角三角形ABC中,AB>AC,△ABC的外接圆在点B和点C处的切线交于点P.一条同时过PB和PC中点的直线与AB,AC分别交于点X,Y.求证:A,X,P,Y四点共圆.

Find all functions f from the integers to the integers such that for all integers n:2f(f(n))=5f(n)-2n【译】求所有函数f:z→z,使得对任意整数n有:2f(f(n))=5f(n)-2n

已知圆锥的底面半径为,其侧面展开图为一个半圆,则该圆锥的母线长为【 】

已知一个圆锥的底面半径为6,其体积为30π,则该圆锥的侧面积为________.

对24小时内降水在平地上的积水厚度(mm)进行如下定义:小雨:0~10中雨:10~25大雨:25~50暴雨:50~100小明用一个圆锥形容器接了24小时的雨水,则这一天的雨水属于哪个等级【 】

两个圆锥的底面是一个球的同一截面,顶点均在球面上,若球的体积为32π/3,两个圆锥的高之比为1:3,则这两个圆锥的体积之和为【 】

有圆锥高8寸,底之半径4寸,今距顶点 2寸之处,作与底平行之平面截断此圆锥,问此两部分之体积各几何?

The base of a right circular cone has a diameter of 25 feet and its slant height is 40 feet. The surface of the cone is cut along a straight line from its vertex to a point on the base, and the surface is then spread out flat to form a sector of a circle. Find the angle of its sector in degrees.

当圆锥的侧面积和底面积的比值是时,圆锥的轴截面顶角是【 】

在半径为30m的圆形广场中央上空,设置一个照明光源,射向地面的光呈圆锥形,且其轴截面顶角为120°。若要光源恰好照亮整个广场,则其高度应为________(精确到0.1m)。

甲、乙两个圆锥的母线长相等,侧面展开图的圆心角之和为2π,侧面积分别为S甲和S乙,体积分别为V甲和V乙.若S甲/S乙 =2,则V甲/V乙 =【 】

设圆锥底面圆周上两点A,B间的距离为2,圆锥顶点到直线AB的距离为,AB和圆锥的轴的距离为1,则该圆锥的体积为________.

如图,正方体ABCD-EFGH的棱长为2,在正方形ABEF的内切圆上任取一点P1,在正方形BCGF的内切圆上任取一点P2,在正方形EFGH的内切圆上任取一点P3,求|P1 P2 |+|P2 P3 |+|P3 P1 |的最小值与最大值.

一个长方体共一顶点的三个面的面积分别是,, ,这个长方体对角线的长是【 】

一个圆柱的侧面展开图是一个正方形,这个圆柱的全面积与侧面积的比是【 】

如图,E,F分别为正方形的面ADD1A1、面BCC1B1的中心,则四边形在该正方形BFD1E的面上的射影可能是________.(要求:把可能的图的序号都填上)

在正三棱柱ABC-A1B1C1中,若AB=BB1,则AB1与C1B所成的角的大小为【 】

在一个正方体中,过顶点A的三条棱的中点分别为E,F,G,该正方体截去三棱锥A-EFG后,所得多面体的三视图中,正视图如右图所示,则相应的侧视图是【 】

已知直三棱柱ABC-A1B1C1中,侧面AA1B1B为正方形,AB=BC=2,E,F分别为AC和CC1的中点,DD为棱A1B1上的点, BF⊥A1B1. (1)证明:BF⊥DE;(2)当B1D为何值时,面BB1C1C与面DFE所成的二面角的正弦值最小?

以图①为正视图,在图②③④⑤中选两个分别作为侧视图和俯视图,组成某三棱锥的三视图,则所选侧视图和俯视图的编号依次为______ ( 写出符合要求的一组答案即可).

某四面体的三视图如图所示,该四面体的表面积为【 】

已知圆柱的底面圆半径为1,高为2,AB为上底面圆的一第直径,C是下底面圆周上的一个动点,则ABC的面积取值范围为__________.